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Monday, August 22, 2011

GARIS PANDUAN DIET MALAYSIA

GARIS PANDUAN DIET MALAYSIA

1. MAKAN PELBAGAI JENIS MAKANAN

i) Tidak terdapat satu jenis makanan yang dapat membekalkan kesemua
jenis zat makanan yang anda perlukan.
Semua makanan dapat memberikan beberapa jenis zat makanan dan
menyumbang kepada rasa, bau, warna, tekstur dan kenikmatan kepada
sesuatu sajian. Setiap jenis makanan mempunyai gabungan karbohidrat,
lemak, vitamin dan mineral yang berbeza. Terdapat sesetengah makanan
yang mempunyai zat makanan tertentu yang lebih berbanding dengan
yang lain. Serat makanan hanya boleh diperolehi daripada tanam-tanaman.
Makan pelbagai jenis makanan dapat menjamin badan kita mendapat zat
makanan yang diperlukan. Makanlah sedikit daripada setiap jenis makanan
tetapi tidak terlalu banyak daripada hanya satu jenis makanan sahaja. Tidak
ada makanan yang harus dipantangkan kecuali atas sebab-sebab
kesihatan yang tertentu.

ii) Pilihlah makanan harian daripada gabungan makanan yang berasaskan
Piramid Makanan.
Makanan dikelompokkan mengikut kandungan zat - zat makanan utama
dan fungsinya. Ada 5 kelompok atau kumpulan utama makanan yang
ditempatkan di aras-aras tertentu dalam Piramid Makanan. Ini membantu
kita mengimbangkan pengambilan pelbagai jenis makanan dalam
sajian atau diet harian kita.

iii) Makanlah dengan tetap.
Melangkau sesuatu masa makan boleh membawa kepada kelaparan yang tidak
terkawal. Ini akan menyebabkan kita makan makanan dengan berlebihan pada
waktu makan yang berikutnya. Apabila kita lapar, kita biasanya akan terlupa tentang
pemakanan yang baik. Mengambil snek di antara masa-masa makan boleh
menghindarkan kita daripada kelaparan tetapi jangan makan terlalu banyak
sehingga snek tersebut menjadi salah satu hidangan makanan (meal) kita.

Elakkan diri daripada tidak mengambil sarapan pagi, tidak makan atau
makan tengah hari sedikit sahaja dan makan malam dengan banyak.
Amalan yang baik ialah mengambil sarapan pagi, makan tengah hari dan
makan malam. Jika anda mengambil bahagian (portion) makanan yang
munasabah, maka tidak ada masalah bagi anda untuk makan makanan
yang anda mahu dan mengekalkan berat badan yang sihat.

2. IMBANGKAN MAKANAN YANG DIMAKAN DENGAN AKTIVITI FIZIKAL

i) Umur, jantina dan aktiviti fizikal menentukan keperluan makanan anda.
Semakin tua umur kita semakin kurang keperluan kalori. Jika anda aktif
semasa kerja (dari segi fizikal) seperti buruh, petani dan kerja-kerja berat
yang lain atau terlibat dalam kegiatan sukan dan permainan dengan tetap,
anda perlu makan dengan lebih banyak. Kaum lelaki biasanya memerlukan
lebih banyak kalori berbanding dengan kaum wanita.

ii) Capai dan kekalkan berat badan idaman.
Mengekalkan berat badan sihat membantu mencegah masalah kesihatan
dan memberi imej tubuh yang lebih baik. Terlalu kurus atau terlalu
gemuk meningkatkan risiko masalah kesihatan.

3. PILIHLAH MAKANAN YANG BANYAK MENGANDUNGI BIJIRIN DAN KEKACANG

i) Sumber utama tenaga harus diambil daripada bijirin penuh.
Bijirin penuh (wholegrain cereals) mengandungi karbohidrat kompleks dan serat
yang tinggi. Serat daripada bijirin membantu mencegah sembelit di samping dapat
membekalkan protein, vitamin jenis B dan beberapa jenis mineral yang penting. Contoh bijirin ialah nasi, hasil bijirin, pasta dan mi.

ii) Kacang kering,
kekacang adalah sumber serat dan protein yang baik. Kacang kering dan kekacang seperti kacang
dhal, kacang merah, kacang hijau dan kacang hitam adalah sumber protein dan serat yang
baik.
Makan pelbagai jenis makanan berserat adalah sangat baik untuk
melawaskan saluran najis (bowel). Makanan berserat juga boleh mencegah
sembelit, penyakit usus dan buasir dan mungkin juga boleh mengurangkan
risiko penyakit jantung, diabetes dan beberapa jenis kanser.

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